Nature conservation has been a top priority of Landvernd since the association was established in 1969. For the first few decades, the conservation of soil and vegetation was high on the agenda. Since the late nineties, the main focus has been on the protection of unique Icelandic wilderness and landscapes against energy utilization of hydro- and geothermal power for heavy industry development, in particular aluminum. Today in Iceland, 77% of all primary energy production is used for heavy industry, of which 71% is for aluminum.
For a while now, one of Landvernd's main focuses has been on the protection of the Icelandic central highlands, and it supports the establishment of a united large national park in the area. Furthermore, special emphasis has been on the conservation of geothermal areas and large unfragmented waterways in the country. The increasing number of tourists in Iceland has shown signs of increased pressure on sensitive natural areas. Landvernd has worked on raising awareness of the growing challenges of combining tourism and nature conservation. Regarding soil and vegetation protection, Landvernd has put emphasis on ecological restoration, challenging the use of invasive species for reclamation purposes in the country.
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